Ghost Economy

Inefficiences that result in largely unseen costs by retailers such as overstocks, understocks and returns.


Buying multiple items knowing all but one will be returned. This results in 38% of returned online clothes.


Extensively searching online, even while in store, but still purchasing in brick-and-mortars.


Using location data to detect when customers are in a competitor’s store, sending them a deal they can’t pass up and luring them away from the competitor.

Machine-to-Machine Commerce

In the very near future, payments will become automated to the point it’s devoid of all humans. Intelligent machines will be able to negotiate payment terms and agree to payments with other machines. For example, a self-driving car paying other intelligent machines for parking.

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